Monday, May 25, 2020

American Slavery in 1600s - 2755 Words

American Slavery Slavery became an established activity in America by 1600’s. The slaves were mostly to provide free and cheap labor. Apart from America, slavery was practiced in other parts of the world throughout history, and in fact it can be traced back to the time of the ancient civilization. With industrial revolution especially with the rise of sugar plantations, the slaves were used to grow sugar in the periods from 1100. This intensified between 1400 and 1500 when Portugal and Spain ventured into sugar growing in the eastern Atlantic regions. The growth of the plantations required labor, hence African slaves were bought from Africa, to provide labor. As the Europeans set up colonies in America, they brought the plantation ideas with them, which led to the need for labor hence they tried to enslave the Native Americans to work in their mines and fields. The Native Americans were prone to diseases hence most of them died as a result of diseases and overworking. Apart from the ones who died, a number rebelled and formed alliances forcing the Europeans to look for other sources of labor. They started to acquire African slaves due to a number of reasons: The African slaves were more stronger and immune to a number of diseases in Europe and America; the Africans had no friends and family in America hence it was not easy for them to form alliances or to escape; they provided a permanent and a cheap source of labor; and most of them had worked on farms before in theirShow MoreRelatedAmerica s Influence On The Building Of The United States1190 Words   |  5 Pagescourse of American history, the ideas and influence of religion has played a significant role in shaping the lives of people and the culture of the nation. Throughout the 1600s, 1700s, and 1800s, groups such as the Puritans, Great Awakening preachers, and abolitionists left a lasting Christian legacy on specific peoples such as Native Americans, and African Americans. The Puritans were a group of religious reformers who came from the Church of England during the middle of the 1600s. PuritansRead MoreThe Need for Slavery in the Colonies856 Words   |  4 PagesThe Need for Slavery in the Colonies Farming, sewing, and taking care of livestock were just a few responsibilities that were left to slaves during the 1600 s. White families received all of the benefits from the work done, yet they rarely had to lift a finger, unless it was to correct a slave. Today s generation reads about slavery and regards it as morally wrong. While I agree that slavery was one of America s greatest wrongdoings, it paved the way for America as we know it today. OneRead MoreBlack And White Men And Women1190 Words   |  5 Pages As we read about the journey throughout time, beginning in the 1600s, we can witness the transformational of slavery gradually (PBS, n.d.). Virginia was primed in the tobacco industry, a very labor-intensive industry, and they were in need of laborers (USHistory, 2017).In 1619, the first Africans arrived in colony of Virginia, where institution slavery did not yet exist (Holt Brown, 2000). The Africans and poor white people were of even value (PBS, n.d.). Black and white men and woman workedRead MoreChesapeake Life in the 17th Century1363 Words   |  6 Pagesrespond to depressed prices of tobacco during the 1600s? Farmers responded to depressed prices of tobacco during the 1600s by planting more acres of tobacco and bringing more still more product to the market. 6. For most of the 1600s, who served as the labor force for the Chesapeake colonies?   Indentured servants served as the labor force for the Chesapeake colonies during the 1600s. 7. What was most often the outcome for indentured servants in the 1600s? Indentured servants could be punished withRead MoreThe Cause and Effect of Slavery in the United States1303 Words   |  6 Pages and every culture built much in this world, yet might have still used the wrong path to do so. America is one major example for this. The Americans, just like many other cultures, have used immoral techniques for the benefit and prosperity of themselves and their dawning country. They stole the lives of millions in order to keep their lives intact. Americans captured Africans and traded them in the colonies, and tormented them in order to utilize them as slaves to work under their control and growRead MoreSlavery Vs. Indentured Servitude1038 Words   |  5 Pages Slavery vs. Indentured Servitude Sandra McIntire HIS110 April 27, 2015 Jelena Popov Slavery vs. Indentured Servitude Slavery. According to Encyclopedia Britannica, it is the condition in which one human being was owned by another. A slave was considered by law as property, and was deprived of the rights held by free people. Slavery was viewed as a way that undeveloped people, such as Black African men and women, could receive the physical and moral discipline and training necessary to attainRead MoreCompare and Contrast of Slavery Essay1145 Words   |  5 PagesShymiak Johnson Intro to African American History Monday 5:30 pm – 9:30 pm HIST 221 ADC2 Professor Pate Overview: To see the differences and similarities in how slaves were treated in the Chesapeake, Low Country ( South Carolina), and Northern Colony regions. Intro: During 18th century slavery, three regions of the country had slight to very different lifestyles as well as small to very common similarities. Slavery during the 18th century influenced how slavery went forth for the next centuryRead MoreThe Beginning Of Enslavement Of Slavery Essay1284 Words   |  6 Pagesamount of time, nor were considered the property of the contract holder. Alike in certain aspects, however, divergent in many areas of Indentured Servants, in the early 1600’s Slavery began in America when the first African Slaves brought to the colony of Jamestown, Virginia. Virginia was one of the first states to acknowledge slavery in its laws, to aid the production of lucrative tobacco crops. In 1670. The law that defined which people could be enslaved declared, â€Å"all servants not being ChristiansRead MoreThe New England Colonist Living In The New World In The1191 Words   |  5 PagesEngland colonist living in the new world in the early 1600’s wen t from a society that had a few slaves, to a society that accepted slavery as a way of life by the early 1700’s. Not one single event or year can be definitely set as to when slavery became a permanent staple of the colonies. The institution of slavery was introduced over time. It took a little over a century of perpetuating laws, codes, and failed rebellions before African slavery became a corner stone of colonial life. For almostRead MoreExperiences Of Slaves During The American Civil War1528 Words   |  7 PagesAmerica How did the experiences of slaves change from the 1600s to the end of the American Civil War and does it exist today? Introduction: The 1600s were full of events that helped make America what it is today. 1619 was the beginning of a revolutionary time still known as the Reconstruction period. Africans were shipped over to a country they had never been to before, and basically told how to live their lives under the enforcement of American farmers. Some thought that they were still in their own

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

The Poetry Of Edgar Allan Poe - 813 Words

Edgar Allan Poe is one of the most renowned poets to ever live. He has written many great and classic poems such as â€Å"The Raven†, â€Å"Annabel Lee†, and â€Å"A Dream Within a Dream†. Poe grew up with his foster parents and many people believe that this is what led him to write his poems, many people also say that his poems are often too dark. Poe was born on January 19, 1809, in Boston. He had a brother and a sister and by the time Poe was three, they lost their mother to consumption and their father left them shortly after. His siblings were split up into different families and he was taken in by The Allans. He would later adopt Allan as his middle name. Though they never adopted Poe, they treated him as if they did. As Poe grew up, however,†¦show more content†¦He moved with Virginia and her mother to New York where he found another job and excelled greatly once again. He eventually got fired again and it was becoming a pattern that he couldn’t keep a job for more than two years. His wife, Virginia, who had been very supportive and important to him, died in 1847 due to consumption. Poe not only started to become overwhelmed with grief but continued to produced incredible work. Poe returned to Richmond in 1849 with his now-widowed childhood friend and they were to be married. Poe went back to get his mot her-in-law, Clemm. He stopped on the way in Baltimore and nobody knows exactly what happened but he was found near a saloon and died 4 days later in the hospital. It is not hard to see the connection between Poe’s life and his publications. Most of his poems were about people losing their love or just death in general. Between his time in the army, the loss of his mother, the loss of his wife, and the disapproval of his adoptive father, Poe had seen and experienced more death than usual in one’s lifetime. He lost the love of his life only thirteen years after marrying her and decided to remember her by writing these poems. Although it is obvious most of his poems are about the loss of Virginia, it is often thought that some of his poems were about the loss of his mother or even, the loss of the relationship with his adoptive father told through the loss of a lover. Poe’s publications were mostly wellShow MoreRelatedEdgar Allan Poe s Poetry1327 Words   |  6 PagesThis research paper will focus on Edgar Allan Poe’s poetry. In Charles May’s bibliography of Poe, he states that â€Å"Poe gained great recognition in the early 1840’s for his creation of a genre that has grown in popularity ever since — the tale of ratiocination, or detective story, which features an amateur sleuth who by his superior deductive abilities outsmarts criminals and outclasses the police.† Along with creating the detective genre, he also created a more modern science fiction genre when heRead MoreEdgar Allan Poe s Poetry960 Words   |  4 PagesParanormal Poetry Edgar Allan Poe’s poems and short stories reflect his psychological tension during tumultuous and estranged experiences. Major literary themes, centered around great loss and the search for eternal happiness, climax with pristine eloquence in all of his greatest works. Many of Poe’s prevalent portrayals of settings and characters remain unique in popular writings as a result of his own bizarre intimacies. Personal trials and struggles translated into fluent prose throughRead MoreThe Poetry Of Edgar Allan Poe949 Words   |  4 Pageslife. Authors often do this when their grief is too much to bear and they don’t know how to verbally express how they feel, so they transform their sorrow into stories. Edgar Allan Poe, is an author greatly known for transforming his greatest despairs into beautiful and eerie works of literature. In his woeful poem, â€Å"Annabel Lee†, Poe expresses his broken heart after the death of a beautiful woman. What many reader s may not know, is that the poem was a dedication to Poe’s late wife and his inspirationRead MorePoetry In Poes The Raven By Edgar Allan Poe937 Words   |  4 Pagesword poetry we immediately think of romance and beauty. However, having read the poem â€Å"The Raven† by Edgar Allan Poe, we have concluded that even dark and gloomy poetry has its own meaning. While going through its stanzas, the magnificent style and rhythm of Poe’s writing made me feel like I also was in the room with the narrator. The poem itself is an incredible experience, filled with deep meanings and symbols that if you’re not aware of them you can totally misunderstand the plot. Poetry is anRead MoreEdgar Allan Poe- the Similarities Between Life and Poetry1380 Words   |  6 PagesPoetry is the manner one would express very complex feelings or emotions. Many poets who connect with their audiences are able to describe, in writing, the emotion of a certain situation. These poems become autobiographical in the sense that the poem is drawn from the poets own situation and observations. Often, in classical poetry, a poet is able to capture the emotion of the situation so that the reader can make a connection. One of the greatest exponents of this was Edgar Allan Poe. He was ableRead MoreThe Cask Of Amontillado, By Edgar Allan Poe And Eating Poetry847 Words   |  4 PagesW.H. Auden once said, â€Å"Poetry is the clear expression of mixed feelings.† When comparing â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† by Edgar Allan Poe and â€Å"Eating Poetry† by Mark Strand their works incorporate horrid elements within their works, which creates apprehension in the reader. The writing styles of these authors provoke this apprehension. The similar characteristics of â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† and â€Å"Eating Poetry†, including captivating introductions that present an eerie setting, use of theatrical imageryRead MoreAnalysis Of Edgar Allan Poe s Poetry915 Words   |  4 Pages Edgar Allan Poe was one of the greatest writers of the 19th century. He is is well known for his gothic themes and disturbing characters. Unfortunately, Poe lived a life full of sorrow and pain, having nearly everyone he loved die. His poem Alone is said to have been a confessional poem, recalling how Poe felt growing up. Poe’s use of repetition, metaphors, and imagery all aid in bringing the reader closer to understanding what was going on in Poe’s mind. The poem Alone was not published untilRead MoreEdgar Allan Poe s Life1308 Words   |  6 PagesPoe was born on January 19, 1809. Poe was born into a family that was high respected and very public, so Poe was destined to have a public career (Dameron and Jacobs). When Poe was two, his parents died (â€Å"Edgar Allan Poe†) and his remaining family was split up into three different foster parents/homes. His oldest brother, William, lived with Poe’s grandfather from his father’s side of the family. Poe’s youngest sibling, Rosalie, lived with William Mackenzie. Poe went with John Allan whose wife wasRead More The Mystery of Edgar Allan Poe Essay1499 Words   |  6 PagesThe Mystery of Edgar Allan Poe What was the mystery of Edgar Allan Poe? Why was he so special? He was special because he helped change poetry by giving it different focuses. Through looking at Edgar Allan Poes life, we will understand what motivated him to write what he did, what the meaning was behind these works, and how this changed poetry. Before Edgar Allan Poe, the common belief was that poetry should be about Truth, and that it should impart some morals. Poe disagreed, and stronglyRead MoreEdgar Allan Poe : The Tale Heart, The Fall Of The House Of Usher, And Annabel Lee Essay1372 Words   |  6 PagesEdgar Allan Poe Edgar Allan Poe is well known for his poetry. Edgar Allan Poe was not only a world renowned poet, but he is also known as being a writer of short stories, as well as known for being a critic. Edgar Allan Poe has many literary works; quite possibly the most famous one being The Raven. Some of Edgar Allan Poe’s other famous works include The Tell-Tale Heart, The Fall of the House of Usher, and Annabel Lee. Edgar Allan Poe is also known as being a Romanticist, due to the fact

Friday, May 15, 2020

Learning Final Integrative Paper Aisha Khawaja 12

Khawaja 1 Running head: DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING Distinctions between classical and operant conditioning Aisha Khawaja New Jersey City University Khawaja 2 Running head: DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING Abstract There are many differences between classical and operant conditioning that will be discussed in this paper. These two types of conditioning are often misinterpreted by many individuals; therefore, it is important to distinguish the two. Learning the different ways animals function and the new behaviors they adapt to are of interest to both Ivan Pavlov and Edward Thorndike. .Sex differences are measured and taken in consideration in both kinds of conditioning processes.†¦show more content†¦For instance, a toddler who burns his hand on a cooking stove will be less likely to come near it next time, remembering how he got burnt from it. Another form of punishment is when a behavior ends on a desirable event. An example of this is when a boy pulls his sister’s hair and is given a time out, which has lost his privilege to watch TV. The boy has learnt a lesson because he won’t dare to even touch his sister’s hair remembering he had lost his privilege to watch TV. Classical conditioning deals with involuntary responses, primarily involving emotions, whereas, operant conditioning deals with voluntary responses that are active behaviors operating within the environment. Compared to operant conditioning, classical conditioning is more passive because in operant conditioning, learners are either getting rewarded for something or punished for something, which keeps the process active. Organisms experience a consequence despite of the fact they have learned the conditioned response. On the other hand, in operant conditioning, the consequence is dependent on the likelihood of the organism reacting to the response. Khawaja 5 Running head: DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING How do you determine the type of conditioning, whether it is classical or operant? Focusing on the outcome or consequence is the key to determining between the two because if the outcome occurs regardless of a response to be shown, then the paradigm is

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

In what way did post war prosperity bring social change to...

In what way did post war prosperity bring social change to Britain 1951-1964? Britain as a country in the year 1951 stood as a country widely effected by the Second World War and the country reflected visible damage which the war had caused. Many young men were on the National Service, rationing was only just coming to an end and also social life in Britain felt like it was in the past. However some felt that the year 1951 was a year of change, they felt as if they were on the way to a new modern world which presented technological and social progress, Children who were born during the â€Å"baby boom† were born into a different society to which their parents grew up in. Leading up to the year 1964 there were many social tensions, changes in†¦show more content†¦Many British people that had a skill in a specific trade were forced to take up trades that required no skill at all which angered them . Due to immigration, discrimination in jobs was open, for example shop keepers put a sign up saying what kind of workers they were looking for, and t his gave many British people the advantage of the immigrants as a confidence trick to govern the country due to being imperial. Excluded from much of the social and economic life the immigrants began to adjust the institutions they had brought with them, for example their churches and the fact they had a British education which meant that the government gave them the right to follow their own traditions and reduced the challenges of schooling. However this also increased segregation between the immigrants and those who opposed, conflict and discrimination was very common, it became easier to recognise people’s origins and social background from their dress scene and accents. The government weren’t prepared for the reaction of the public immigration would cause regarding the unhappiness of being restricted in the job market, they then introduced the immigration act which stopped immigrant wanting to come into the country although if left the ones already in Britain feel ing very isolated and betrayed which sparked their rebellion. The conservative government had traditional views upon empire and they were objective to change which socially changed the views of the public and changedShow MoreRelated‘The main reason for conservative dominance in the years 1951 to 1964 was labour disunity’ Assess the validity of this view.2212 Words   |  9 Pages ‘The main reason for conservative dominance in the years 1951 to 1964 was labour disunity’ Assess the validity of this view. (June 2011) Labour disunity was a huge contributing factor as to why the conservatives were able to dominate from 1951 to 1964. However, there are also other factors that assisted conservative dominance. Whether that be conservative strengths, good timing, the end of austerity or their handle on public opinion, all factors contributed to the dominant years. However, how longRead MoreHistory of Social Work18530 Words   |  75 PagesInstitute of Social Sciences Compiled by S.Rengasamy-History of Social Welfare / Social Work Contents History of Social Welfare/ Social Work ..........................................................................................................................3 The need to understand history of social work .............................................................................................................3 Framework to understand History of Social Welfare / Social Work .....Read MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. 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Globalization affects almost every human being, this is because the process of globalization is said to have expanded almost through out the entire world either through transport, commerce, and communication. In addition, man’s activities on the globe are all located under these sectors. Culture, as a way of living of man, isRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 PagesPerspectives John McAuley, Joanne Duberley and Phil Johnson . This book is, to my knowledge, the most comprehensive and reliable guide to organisational theory currently available. What is needed is a text that will give a good idea of the breadth and complexity of this important subject, and this is precisely what McAuley, Duberley and Johnson have provided. They have done some sterling service in bringing together the very diverse strands of work that today qualify as constituting the subjectRead MoreFrom Salvation to Self-Realization18515 Words   |  75 PagesWestern capitalist nations. In the United States as elsewhere, the bourgeois ethos had enjoined perpetual work, compulsive saving, civic responsibility, and a rigid morality of selfdenial. By the early twentieth century that outlook had begun to give way to a new set of values sanctioning periodic leisure, compulsive spending, apolitical passivity, and an apparently permissive (but subtly coercive) morality of individual fulfillment. The older culture was suited to a production-orient ed society of smallRead MoreInternational Management67196 Words   |  269 Pagescompanies in terms of oversight and accountability. The advent of social networking and other media has transformed the way citizens interact and how businesses market, promote, and distribute their products globally. The same can be said for mass collaboration efforts occurring through digital, online technology for the development of new and innovative systems, products, and ideas. Both social networking and mass collaboration bring new power and influence to individuals across borders and transformRead MoreStrategic Marketing Management337596 Words   |  1351 Pages4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 Learning objectives Introduction: the changing business environment (or the new marketing reality) Analysing the environment The nature of the marketing environment The evolution of environmental analysis The political, economic, social and technological environments Coming to terms with the industry and market breakpoi nts Coming to terms with the very different future: the implications for marketing planning Approaches to environmental analysis and scanning Summary 5 ApproachesRead MoreManagement Course: Mba−10 General Management215330 Words   |  862 PagesEffective Behavior in Organizations, Seventh Edition 11. Leadership: Exerting Influence and Power 94 94 Text Palmer−Dunford−Akin †¢ Managing Organizational Change 2. Images of Managing Change 121 121 147 147 Text 3. Why Organizations Change Text Cohen †¢ Effective Behavior in Organizations, Seventh Edition 14. Initiating Change 174 174 Text iii Cases 221 221 225 The Consolidated Life Case: Caught Between Corporate Cultures Who’s in Charge? (The)(Jim)(Davis)(Case) Morin−JarrellRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesISBN-10: 0-13-283487-1 1. Organizational behavior. I. Judge, Tim. II. Title. HD58.7.R62 2012 658.3—dc23 2011038674 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 10: 0-13-283487-1 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-283487-2 Brief Contents Preface xxii 1 2 Introduction 1 What Is Organizational Behavior? 3 The Individual 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Diversity in Organizations 39 Attitudes and Job Satisfaction 69 Emotions and Moods 97 Personality and Values 131 Perception and Individual Decision Making 165 Motivation Concepts 201 Motivation:

Children And Young People Are Best Cared For By Their Own...

The Children Act 1989 à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Local authorities, courts and parents, together with other agencies in the UK were allocated duties to ensure children and young people are safeguarded, and to promote their welfare. The idea is that children and young people are best cared for by their own families, but provisions are made for those parents and families that are unable to co-operate with statutory bodies. 7) Any delays in the system when a childà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬TMs welfare is at risk will have a detrimental impact on their wellbeing. The childà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬TMs welfare is paramount. 8) The child is listened to and their wishes are taken into account alongside physical and emotional needs, age, sex, background circumstances, the likely effect of the child and the harm suffered or likely to suffer. The parentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬TMs ability to provide these needs to the child or young person and the powers available to the court are also a consideration. 9) Family links should be maintained, either through visits or other forms of contact. Both parents are important, and attachments should be respected, sustained and developed. The law does not distinguish between married and unmarried as long as both parents have a parental responsibility. 10) 11) Young people under the age of 18 are classed as a child. 12) 13) For those dealing with children and young people on a daily basis, the childrenà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬TM activities must be planned to ensure learning and play are enjoyable whilst in a safe and secure environment. The ratio betweenShow MoreRelatedMy Role As A Young Child1514 Words   |  7 Pages My role as a young child often involved taking care of Megan and Shane. Getting them dressed and washed-up, combing their hair and keeping an eye on them. When my father walked out and my mom was left to take care of all of us on her own my responsibilities to the family changed. My roles include babysitter, student, and helper. Not only did I help care for Megan and Shane but after school I would go to the motels where my mom was a maid and help clean the rooms. When my motherRead MoreRomeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare911 Words   |  4 PagesJuliet. Romeo and his friends have a specific type of love for each other, which is different from the types of love that Romeo shares with Juliet and his family. Mercutio shows his sense of humor by saying â€Å"Romeo! humors! madman! passion! lover!† (2.1.7) when he teases Romeo about his love for Rosaline. Friendly relationships between most people consists of joking around and having a good time. Romeo’s friends, specifically Mercutio, are characterized as jokesters and like to laugh and have fun. AlthoughRead MoreA Closer Look at Boo Radleys Eccentric Character in Harper Lees To Kill a Mockingbird1196 Words   |  5 PagesMockingbird features a man named Arthur Radley, though the people of Maycomb know him as Boo. He is described as a malevolent phantom, hence his nickname, that eats cats and is over seven feet tall. Boo is known as the town recluse and madman. Never theless, there may be some reason for his eccentric behavior. As said by William Shakespeare, â€Å"Though this be madness, yet there is method in’t.† Boo Radley is the character in To Kill a Mockingbird that best portrays the idea of madness. His behavior is definitelyRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet1546 Words   |  7 Pagesor 15? You probably don’t, but it was very common during the Elizabethan Era in England, a time when people were expected to get married at a very young age. When people think of couples that married at a very young age, Romeo and Juliet often come to mind. Romeo and Juliet’s marriage was not very much like others of the time period. Shakespeare wrote the play, Romeo and Juliet, based on his own views of marriage and love. Shakespeare’s experience with love and marriage, arranged marriages, the ageRead MoreThe Learning Environments Of Children1496 Words   |  6 Pageslearning environments of children are highly important since it’s the beginning chapter to their full on life development. My philosophy of Early Childhood Education is based on the belief that learni ng is an important part of their everyday lives. Later on in my career as an early childhood teacher or the field I end up choosing I want to be able to make a difference in the lives of young children. I will try to create the best learning styles in order for the children to fully succeed and I willRead More America Must Learn to Respect the Elderly Essay590 Words   |  3 PagesElderly It is blatantly evident that America is a country in which youth is king. Everyone wants to look young, feel young, and possess that youthful vigor and dynamism that is so highly respected by both the media and by the public. Our shelves are stocked with products to make us appear younger in any way, shape, or form; our most popular reality TV shows revolve around the lives of the young and beautiful. It seems that America’s population has forgotten that with luck, some day we will all becomeRead MoreChildren Of The Victorian Era1376 Words   |  6 PagesAbandon Children In the Victorian era many lower-class women abandoned their children because they didn’t have a stable financial income. Majority of the kids that were relinquished, because of absence of income in a family. The few shelters existing in the Victorian culture were awful to the point that numerous kids decided to live on their own in the city. Orphans living on their own in the city would most likely make them prone to becoming criminals. There was an abundance of things that couldRead MoreAttachment During Infancy And Early Childhood1430 Words   |  6 Pagesinsecure attachment. More than half of children in the united states form secure attachments, leaving about 40 to 45 percent of children to form insecure attachments. when there are problems with forming an attachment during infancy and early child hood, a child will be more likely to struggle with relationships as an adult. These relationship problems can potentially last for a persons entire life if not addressed. That b eing said, there are a resources to help children with insecure attachment disordersRead MoreComparing the Works of Norman Rockwell and Gary Soto1042 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿Family happiness is something that many today focus on as an absolute requirement for happy and healthy growth in children. And indeed, it is right that this should be so. In reality, however, challenges such as poverty and racism often affect the happiness that families might experience. When comparing the works created by Norman Rockwell and Gary Soto, however, it becomes clear that family happiness is not so much dependent upon wealth as it is upon freedom of expression and freedom from fearRead MoreA Tale Of Glass Menagerie And The Grandmother From A Good Man1314 Words   |  6 Pagesgrandmother is a Godly woman who lives with her family of five. On the surface these two woman look like they do not have anything in common, but they are all too similar. They both love to recollect their days in the past and they always fought so they would have their own way. The only difference among the two is that Amanda genuinely cared for her family while the grandmother only cared for herself. Though these two women meant well in their own minds neither of them ended up getting what they

Accounting Theory and Current Issues Performing Research

Question: Describe about the Accounting Theory and Current Issues for Performing Research. Answer: Introduction Development research industry has been doing well in the recent past and many firms have since joined the RD industry (JUCKER ROUCHOTA1998). Bio-sustainable Feeds (BSF) is one of the firms in the industry performing research in Australia in sector aqua food production and has been in the industry for decades. The company has been listed among others in the Australian stock exchange market. The company operation has been under criticisms by the environmentalists who view its operations negative. Based on the accounting and business arguments as well as theories all companies has got patent right to their products (KING,2006). Therefore a company must be also responsible for their products. Bio-sustainable industry produced a plant based aqua culture food products which never yield better results as per the expectations and ended up losing huge sum of money in the process. The scope of this paper investigates accounting theories in relation to the current issues such as BSF Ltd. The p aper exploits the current issues in relation to accounting theory in application to Bio-sustainable fish feed. Nature and value to society of the research being done by BSF Ltd The kind of research being conducted by the company is a developmental research. It is an RD research project which aims at improving food production in Australia as a whole if it succeeds. The aqua feed research is an experimental based research which requires a lot of experimentation to ensure its success (BERMAN 2009). BSF LTD research can also be seen as an applied research in which a party such as agencies and society must benefit from. It involves risks due to the fact that it is both field and experimental as well. The research being done by the company is of a great to the society in several ways. Even though a lot capital is invested into the research, its fruits will help eradicate the world hunger in future. BSF Ltd has tried their best trying to provide continuous fish supply into the markets reducing the rate of hunger (KIESO, WEYGANDT WARFIELD 2010). BSF ltd current research is to the public rescue since it involves recycling of waste products in the creation of a bett er and fast growing fish. The research indicates that most of the ingredients required for such fish feed are waste products. The company intends to use bacteria in their manufacturing which may not be too much burden to the society. Wood chips are waste products, the use of woodchips is cheaper to acquire and readily available and has no biological effects on the consumers who are members of society. Another raw material for the production is a recycled methane gas which does not require much capital (COLLINGS, S. (2015). Production of these fish feed is safer to environment as many of the raw materials are environmental pollutants. Sugar residue, methane and wood chips are waste products of which their use helps in elimination of pollutants in the environment leading to elimination of infections as well. Production of aqua feed according to BSF ltd in such away has got a positive impact to members of the society. The kind fish kept with such kind of feed has its omega oil intact and matures faster compared to the normal. The faster growth of fish will result in increased food supply to the society reducing hunger levels in Australia in future. Success of this research will result into a bridge of the gap between the poor and the rich as witnessed in the previous farming method where only the rich could afford fish. The society values this research since it has resulted into prevention of human quality food waste. Conversion of human food product into fish meal was a great challenge to Australian society and resulted to malnutrition and starvation as quality human food was used to grow luxurious fish which majority could not afford. Biotechnological aqua feed production will lead to expansion of fish farming in the society (PRICEWATERHOUSECOOPERS LLP 2013). Increase in fish farms mean s creation of employment which factor to growth and development in a given society. The research is substantial to the society as it facilitates its development as well as boosting its economy. Problems with the early research done by BSF Ltd. The $360 million AUD research investment performed by Bio-sustainable Feeds (BSF) Ltd has got a lot of drawbacks to the company itself, economy and Australian society (JARNAGIN 2008). The research was not conducted with the consideration of human, survival mechanism of various types of and finally the economic status of individual citizen. The shift from fish meal for other fish to planted produce was too expensive compared to bacteria production of aqua feed. Planted ingredients such as canola, corn, soya-bean, sunflower and other farm products were expensive compared to bacteria production which majors in recycling of waste products (RIAHI-BELKAOUI 2005). The company spent a lot in the purchases of raw materials without speculation of what may happen in future. The research never considered a deeper study on the diet of various types of fish which ended up dead resulting into a huge collapse of money (RIAHI-BELKAOUI 2005). BFS Ltd industry never considered the consequences of farm based fish feed to species of fish and to human nutrition as revealed by Jillian Fry, director of CLF's Public Health and Sustainable Aquaculture Project and a faculty member at the Johns Hopkins. Farm produced fish acquire omega 3 fatty acid from other products especially fish oil. The research produced expensive small fish which were only affordable for the rich. In any case where only a given part of a population can afford a product, market becomes limited due reduced demand. Such scenario leads to imbalanced equilibrium in the supply and demand as well as unstable economy. Another problem with BSF research is the failure to consider the importance of the raw materials to the third party and human nutrition (EVANS 2003). Most of the farm products used in manufacturing of aqua feed is basic and human high quality food crops. This kind of fish farming led to human starvation since their basic foods were being converted into fish meal. In consideration of human nutrition the end fi sh products from this shift were of low quality and could lead to health issues and complications. Nature, accounting and comparison between general research and RD Development is an application of already conducted research on a particular field. For instance, BFS company venturing into aqua meal production is application of developmental research. Development utilizes the research finding and outcome to come up with a specific end product as seen in the case of BSF ltd (REDDY 2004). The nature of development involves use of specific raw material in the line of production, specific systems and finally clearly identified methods. Development is a sub branch of a general research which deals with the generation of a more indispensable understanding and deigns important in manufacturing of the model. On the other hand research is defined as an indefinite investigation. It targets a more general field in comparison to development which is more specific. For instance if BSF Ltd was a general research facility it could have conducted a more broad research rather than plant based, fish based and bacteria based fish feed. Research works on a broad pers pective while development only applies to the last part and on a specific finding (PANDIKUMAR 2007). General research requires large amount of money while development is specific thus specific budget. The accounting in general research differs from that of development since only expenses are accounted. All company assets are not expenses as seen in development. Accounting in RD is the consideration of expenses and revenues over a given period of time (BONIN 2001). The cost allocated for development should match expenses and revenues. All assets purchased in development are expensed. This capitalization of assets in the development is considered as an expense since they are meant to generate income in future. Development expenditures are formed with the expectation of future profits and products of measurement. Development has a lot of benefits and advantages compared to general research and has attracted several investors in recent past (VONORTAS, 1991). General research is road and requires a lot of funding which has got no sure benefit in return. Investors enjoy tax breaks in which tax are often deductible but some are not deductible. General development research such as market research and assessment research are not subject to taxation making many investors to get into development research. Development allow s more cost effective investment thus increasing the profit margin. In terms of financing RD enjoy the benefits of funding from other parties like established companies. Such companies enjoy qualified employees since many of graduates tend to join these companies (PORWAL 2001). The above reasons make several firms to RD industry to enjoy the benefits and exploit the available economies of scale. Fair market value patent assumptions and calculations Development based research companies like BFS ltd have patent for their products. Calculation of the patent value according to GAAP involves appropriate assumptions to come up with the fair values (WALLACE SCHRODER 1997). In the case of Bio-sustainable, the company received a lot of grants from Australian government research sector (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) the company agrees to spend the money in two years and the addition (THOMPSON 2010). The assumption based on the calculations of the patent value under combination of discounted cash flow and real option method. The method assumes that a sole biotechnology firm has ten years (KITT 2016). Since BSF ltd is among the biotech industry the sum of total year applies and addition two years of agreement. (10yers +2yrs= 12 years). The DCF market value* (1+factor %) = patent fair value indication. The value lies two methods as shown. The NVP = $ 700000000 *(1+8.0) = $630000000. Therefore fair pat ent value =Preliminary DCF value (1 + factor %) = Patent fair market value indication BSF journal entries for BSF LTD. Cash disbursement journal BSF Ltd. Raw materials and other facilities has cost BSF Ltd. $160 million date particulars Debit credit 2013 facility $160000000 Expected to use a cost another $200 million AUD in development costs to bring it to market. BSF Year Particulars Debit credit 2013 transport $200000000 Cash receipts journal BSF Ltd. received a $500 million AUD grant from the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO, Federal Government of Australia) Year Particulars Debit Credit 2013 (CSIRO $500000000 In consideration of $500 million AUD grant from the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO, Federal Government of Australia) the right place is the credit since the company is to refund back the money (ANDERSON ANDERSON 2012). All the liabilities such the grant is debited since it is the companies responsibility to refund back the money to the owners after the purpose is met (ROSTEN 2013). In the research and development a third party such as the agencies are beneficiaries thus any funding from them is a liability to the research company such as BSF Ltd. Management asserted in a prospectus of patent value Bio-sustainable Feed has the got the patent right to access to the bacteria since they had operated a food company before. The company had early operated aquaculture feed for the last period before venturing into the new technology where bacteria is used as a raw material for product (RIDLER 2001). The assertion is true since the patent rights allow RD companies to utilize complementary resources to bring their final idea into the market (RIDLER 2001). Therefore BSF ltd is permitted to access bacteria from the previous company. Conclusion A lot of issues and theories have been discussed in relation to the current. Research and development has been among the current issues discussed within the context of the paper. Development has become an issue in accounting sector has to be looked keenly to ensure that the sector is perfectly developed. The fair patent right is also an issue the company management should consider in relation to what has been discussed below. References JUCKER, A. H., ROUCHOTA, V. (1998). Current issues in relevance theory. Amsterdam [u.a.], J. Benjamins KING, A. M. (2006). Fair value for financial reporting: meeting the new FASB requirements. Hoboken, N.J., John Wiley Sons. BERMAN, B. M. (2009). From assets to profits: competing for IP value return. Hoboken, N.J., J. Wiley. KIESO, D. E., WEYGANDT, J. J., WARFIELD, T. D. (2010). Intermediate accounting: IFRS approach. Volume 2 Volume 2. Hoboken, N.J., Wiley. COLLINGS. S ,2003 ). Interpretation and application of UK GAAP for accounting periods commencing on or after 1 January 2015. PRICEWATERHOUSECOOPERS LLP. (2013). Manual of accounting: new UK GAAP - 2013. JARNAGIN, B. D. (2008). 2009 U.S. master GAAP guide. Chicago, IL, CCH. RIAHI-BELKAOUI, A. (2005). Accounting theory. London, Thomson. EVANS, T. G. (2003). Accounting theory: contemporary accounting issues. Mason (Ohio), Thomson/South-Western. PORWAL, L. S. (2001). Accounting theory: an introduction. New Delhi, Tata McGraw-Hill. BONIN, H. (2001). Generational Accounting: Theory and Application. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer Berlin Heidelberg. PANDIKUMAR, M. P. (2007). Management accounting: theory and practice. New Delhi, Excel Books. HENDERSON, S., PEIRSON, G., BROWN, R. (1992). Financial accounting theory: its nature and development. Melbourne, Australia, Longman Cheshire. REDDY, R. J. P. (2004). Advanced accounting: theory and practice. New Delhi, A.P.H. Publ. BERI, G. C. (1993). Research and development in Indian industry. New Delhi, Concept Pub. Co. VONORTAS, N. S. (1991). Cooperative research in RD-intensive industries. Aldershot, Avebury. WALLACE, L. T., SCHRODER, W. R. (1997). Government and the Food Industry: Economic and Political Effects of Conflict and Co-Operation. Boston, MA, Springer US. KITT, M. (2016). Research and development tax reliefs. [Place of publication not identified], Bloomsbury Professional. ANDERSON, N. G., ANDERSON, N. G. (2012). Practical process research and development: a guide for organic chemists. Amsterdam, Academic Press. ROSTEN, T. W. (2013). Perspectives for sustainable development of Nordic aquaculture: the Paban-report. Kbh, Nordisk MinisterraÃÅ'Ã…  d. HALWART, M. (2005). Papers presented at the FAO/NACA consultation on aquaculture for sustainable rural development: Chiang Rai, Thailand, 29 - 31 march 1999. Rome, FAO. RIDLER, N., HISHAMUNDA, N. (2001). Promotion of sustainable commercial aquaculture in sub-Saharan Africa. Vol. 1, Vol. 1. Rome, FAO. THOMPSON, T., BROWN, M. (2010). American Dietetic Association easy gluten-free: expert nutrition advice with more than 100 recipes. Hoboken, N.J., Wiley.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Trader Joe Case Analysis for PEST

Question: Discuss about theTrader Joe Case Analysis for PEST Analysis. Answer: Detailed assessment of the Trader Joes environment P.E.S.T. analysis and the five forces analysis PEST Analysis All types of organizations need to analyze their external environment through the identification of the external factors that affect their operations. The PEST analysis is used as a popular tool to clarify the Political, Economic, Social and Technological issues (FME, 2018). According to Martrous (2016), the PEST analysis of the food retailing industry in the USA could be discussed as follows: The political issues: The USA has issued the Organic Food Production Act in 1990 that stated the national standards for the products grown organically in the United States. The act was based mainly on the consumer interest in the organic food. The economic issues: The American consumer is able to afford the purchasing cost of the organic foods which means a positive market outlook. Social issues: The increase in senior population is likely to cause an increase in consumption of the organic food as it is widely accepted among the population and more people are willing to spend on healthy food. Technological issues: The advancement in technology has positively affected the foods market and improved the end to end shopping experience. Many ways of digital food consumption were developed, including, the online shopping, shopping applications and shopping through the social media channels The Five Forces of competition Porters' five forces of competitive analysis could be applied to Trader Joe's as follows: The bargaining power of buyers: About 80% of the customers are highly educated. The company describes its target market as intelligent and enjoy shopping at Joe's (Ager Roberto, 2013). Bargaining power of suppliers: Trader Joe's deals directly with suppliers without middlemen. It takes the goods at 25% to 40% lower prices than the wholesale prices and it asks the merchants to keep the prices as secret. About 20-25% of its suppliers are overseas (Coriolis Research Ltd., 2006). Threat of new entrants: The potential entrants are low as it is difficult to enter the grocery market. The small and medium-size grocery stores account for about 70% of the industry. The local suppliers make entry restrictions to the market. The product freshness accounts for higher costs for small and medium business size (Martrous, 2016). Threat of substitute products: The threat of substitute product is high in the USA market as the prices of organic foods are generally higher compared to the regular grocery items (Martrous, 2016). Trader Joes does not offer a deduct strategy, but it offers lower prices organic food and it is the cheapest place in the USA to buy vitamins with 50 different types (Coriolis Research Ltd., 2006). Intensity of rivalry: The grocery industry is characterized as a competitive environment. There are four dominating companies; Walmart, Kroger, Safeway and Supervalu that accounts for 30% of the industry revenues and the rest goes to the small and medium-sized The market concentration is low and the wholesale companies provide groceries with 25% lower prices compared to the organic food (Martrous, 2016). Trader Joes offers a big range of ethnic cuisines for the food savvy customers. These products are promoted through flyers with recipes and information about the product to create a source of differentiation among rivals (Coriolis Research Ltd., 2006). Second: Essential skills, competencies, and capabilities of Trader Joes Organizations can create a strategic position through the production of a subset of the industry products, called variety based position. The second strategy is the needs-based positioning, it is based on fulfilling the different needs of some groups of customers with varying amount of information. The third strategy is the access-based positioning through segmenting customers and accessing them through different ways (Porter, 1996). Trader Joe's conduct the first two strategies as it aims to offer a variety of industrial products including organic food, wine, vitamins and music products. Also, it fulfills the complex needs of a certain group of customers who are well educated, love to travel and discover new thing. It is intelligent of him to select the store locations beside the educational institutes. Not conducting the third strategy creates a source of risk to Trader Joe's as it has to excel towards achieving its targeted customers with all of the possible means. Trader Joe's core competencies could be discussed according to MITSloan Management (2010), as follows: Its HRM: Trader Joe's policy towards its staff makes them love to work. It offers them training and pays them above the average market salaries. Also, the staff is very friendly and well educated and loved by the customers. Purchasing of large quantities of products driving the prices down for the customer: It offers high-quality products at low cost and follows the JIT process. It limits its stock for specific product items that could be sold at very low prices. Sourcing products globally and asking vendors to be secretive about the agreed upon prices: It works with a variety of suppliers who make interesting products especially for Trader Joe's. Offering 80% of the traded goods with private label items: It offers about 2000 unique grocery items, with every day reduced prices, moreover, it offers about 15 new products every week. Small size shops allow for low rental cost, or purchase price: It can control its costs. Also, it limits the number of hands that can touch the product by dealing directly with the producers. Also, it keeps its financial results as a secret. Third: Evaluation of the critical gaps in the skills, competencies, and capabilities that Trader Joes currently has versus what is needed in the future Despite the success of the Trader Joe's business, it has to develop certain skills, capabilities and competencies to be able to sustain its competitive advantage. Acting in the same way while not considering the environmental changes are expected to provide a chance to rivals to grow and at the same time, it creates a gap in the organizational skills that should be filled. For example, Wall-mart and other rivals expanded through small locations throughout the market. Also, Tesco has launched a chain of stores in the neighborhood and borrowed the process of the fresh and easy store from Joe's. Moreover, Amazon could utilize the technological advance to attract the consumers and shift their preferences. Trader Joe's lacks the capabilities that enable it from accessing consumer with a variety of means, including technological and even the traditional television advertisements. The company is against this thinking, but it cannot stay for a long time away as it has become a must (Ager Ro berto, 2013; Coriolis Research Ltd., 2006). On the other hand, consumers have been changing their shopping behavior for food. They tend to divide their spending across a variety of choices as hypermarkets, supermarkets convenience stores and online services. Trader Joe's shops' locations are small, offer certain types of goods and achieve customers called the value seekers through the indoor printed flyers only. It lacks the skills of marketing and promotion. It does not have a large distribution network, it depends only on expansion by opening more stores in certain areas. Despite the Facebook page created by people, the company neither responds to them nor create a marketing activity on the social media channels. It needs a technology-driven staff to join the work who clearly realize the fact that the digital technology is embedded now in the consumers' lifestyles. Moreover, during the period (2007-2012), 150 million square feet were added to the grocery retail industry. None of them represented a traditional supermarket format with its hard discounts and quite significant that led to lower operating costs. The Dollar stores enable the consumers to access hundreds of food and non-food items at the lowest prices. This rival expansion creates a threat to Trader Joe's traditional way of marketing as many competitors are imitating it and quickly respond to the consumer changing needs. The company has to obtain the skills that enables it from responding to the changing and customized consumer preferences (Hodson, Egol, Blischok, 2012; Hartman Group, 2017). Fourth: The key success factors required by Trader Joes to bridge identified gaps Being an innovative organization in one area does not mean to be innovative for only one part of the business model. Trader Joe' needs to focus its innovative resources on the threatening areas. Also, it needs to move faster as time is considered as a competitive weapon in the complex business environment (Zook Allen, 2011). Having a value network, including the upstream suppliers and the downstream customers as Trader Joe's is not enough to sustain its competitive advantage in the future. The company needs to acquire highly skilled staff aware of technology to create a freestanding value network. They are expected to market for the company products on a large scale and benefit from the customer orientation towards technology. Also, the company could adopt a new delivery strategy that allows the customers to select the products online to be delivered to the destination of their choice (Christensen, Anthony, Roth, 2004). In order to sustain its high performance in the future, companies need to develop a new generation of leaders. As Trader Joe's need a transformation plan, a new style of leaders needs to be encouraged to implement new business models. The company also has to adopt a new policy of cultivating new skills to join its staff to bring new blood to the organization (Johnson, Yip, Hensmans, 2012). As it is expected that the consumer habits over the next five years will change more towards healthier eating habits as a result of media awareness. Also, it is expected that consumer change will shift from grocery shopping of necessary goods to shopping for experience. As a result, Trader Joe's is likely to face growing competition and if we considered that Joe's company depends on the lower prices we will find that Wall-mart also knows very well (Bellona, Breivik, Cannon, Yap, 2010). References Ager, D., Roberto, M. (2013). Trader Joes. USA: Harvard Business Review. Bellona, D., Breivik, K., Cannon, C., Yap, M. (2010). Industry analysis: Retail grocery industry analysis, value creation Best practices. USA: Strategic Innovation in Product Service Design. Christensen, C., Anthony, S., Roth, E. (2004). Strategic choices. In Using the theories of innovation to predict industry change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Coriolis Research Ltd. (2006). Understanding Trader Joes. New Zealand: Coriolis Research Ltd. FME. (2018, April 08). PESTLE analysis: Strategy skills. Retrieved from Free Management ebooks: Hartman Group. (2017). U.S. grocery shopper trends. USA: FMI the Voice of Food Retailer. Hodson, N., Egol, N., Blischok, T. (2012). Four factors shaping competition in grocery retailing. USA: PWC. Johnson, G., Yip, G., Hensmans, M. (2012). Achieving successful strategic transformation. MIT Salon Management Review, 53(2), 25-32. Martrous, B. (2016). Whole foods market case analysis. USA: California State University. MITSloan Management. (2010). Trader Joes vs. whole foods market: A comparison of operational management. USA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Porter, M. (1996). What is strategy? USA: Harvard Business Review. Zook , C., Allen, J. (2011). The great repeatable business model. USA: Harvard Business Review.